Many Americans will celebrate the country’s birthday today, but physicists and science buffs will also celebrate the tenth anniversary of the discovery of the Higgs boson, also known as the God Particle, on July 4th.
You may not be familiar with physicist Peter Higgs, who first predicted the existence of a new particle in the 1960s and suggested that we are surrounded by an ocean of quantum information known as the Higgs field, but his Nobel Prize-winning discovery does everything else in our universe. Maybe.
The existence of the Higgs boson is one of the reasons why everything we see, including ourselves, all planets and stars, has mass and exists, which is why it was called the “God Particle”.
The particle that Higgs and his fellow physicists speculated about in 1964 could only gain mass by interacting with a field that pervades the entire universe, known as the Higgs field. This means that if the field did not exist, the particles would simply float freely and move at the speed of light.
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The discovery of the Higgs boson in July 2012 formed the basis for the existence of all elementary particles in our Universe. The image above is a visualization of the event recorded by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It shows the characteristics expected from the decay of the SM Higgs boson into a pair of photons.
Unlike many other breakthrough discoveries, the Higgs boson can simply be “found” in the traditional sense—it has to be created. Once it is created, evidence of its decay will be looked for in data collected at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.
At the world’s largest particle accelerator, where protons collide with each other at close to the speed of light, in a huge 27-kilometer race track-like tunnel that runs 300 feet underground on the border of France and Switzerland, scientists knew that found evidence of its collapse in 2012.
Many technologies have been developed – in healthcare, industry and computing – in the ten years since the Higgs boson was first discovered.
Since the announcement of its discovery on July 4, 2012, physicists have been analyzing how the Higgs boson interacts with other particles to see if it is consistent with what is known as the Standard Model of physics.
The existence of the Higgs boson, a subatomic particle that carries the Higgs field, was first proposed by the British physicist Peter Higgs in 1964. Higgs boson at CERN in July 2012
THE HIGGS BOSON CARRIES MASS AND IS A FUNDAMENTAL PART OF THE STANDARD MODEL OF PARTICLE PHYSICS
The Higgs boson, an elementary particle, is one of the building blocks of the universe according to the Standard Model of particle physics.
It was named after physicist Peter Higgs as part of the mechanism that explains why particles have mass.
According to the Standard Model, our universe is made up of 12 particles of matter, including six quarks and six leptons.
He also has four forces – gravity, electromagnetism, strong and weak.
Every force has a corresponding carrier particle, known as a boson, that acts on matter.
The theory was that the Higgs boson was responsible for the mass transfer.
It was first proposed in 1964 and was not discovered until 2012, during the launch of the Large Hadron Collider.
The discovery was important because if it were shown that it did not exist, it would mean breaking the Standard Model and returning to the drawing board.
The Standard Model is the leading theory that explains three of the four fundamental forces in the universe—electromagnetism, the weak force, and the strong force—but excludes gravity.
There are other aspects of our universe, such as dark matter and dark energy, that are not yet explained by the Standard Model.
Scientists have been studying how the Higgs boson interacts with other particles and what these so-called “bonds” can produce – this was achieved by conducting many experiments and analyzing a large amount of data.
By 2018, scientists determined that 58 percent of the Higgs bosons decay into b quarks, also known as beauty quarks.
Although CERN has been in the spotlight when it comes to the Higgs boson, what many people don’t know is that at some point the United States may have been home to the world’s largest particle accelerator called the Tevatron.
Planned in the 1980s for a site deep under Waxahachee, Texas, this particle accelerator would be 87 miles long and would be capable of slamming protons together at higher energy levels than currently possible at CERN.
However, a combination of bureaucratic anxiety with the cost of the project and discomfort among scientists and religious people over the phrase “God Particle” led to the cancellation of the project in 1993.
CERN, founded on September 29, 1954, is the center of a community of 10,000 scientists from all over the world, as well as the birthplace of the World Wide Web. It has 23 member states, but the US only has observer status at CERN, which means it is not part of CERN’s governing board, which makes important decisions about its science.
In 2012, Higgs and his colleague François Engler won the award. Nobel Prize for “the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of the mass of subatomic particles.”
There are many questions scientists still hope to answer at CERN in the coming years and decades.
What can the Higgs boson tell us about the earliest moments of our universe?
Could dark matter and dark matter, which make up 68 and 27 percent of the universe, respectively, be detected as a result of interactions with the Higgs boson?
Is it possible to open microscopic black holes, and will energy ever flow through them?
Can we reveal more about b-quarks or beautiful quarks and their significance for the singularity?
What can we learn about M-theory, which says that instead of three dimensions of space and time, there can be at least 11 dimensions, made not of particles we know, but of tiny vibrating strings that interact with each other.
The launch of Run 3 of the Large Hadron Collider will be broadcast live on all CERN social networks starting at 10:00 AM ET on Tuesday, July 5th.
The Higgs field is best thought of as a field of energy or information that pervades everything around us. The image above is an artistic view of this field published by CERN.
Physicist Peter Higgs first proposed the existence of the Higgs field and the Higgs boson in 1964. In the photo above, a scientific article in which he outlined this case.
CERN is one of the largest scientific institutions in the world, with over 2,000 scientists working on many physics projects. The image above shows a string of LHC dipole magnets inside the tunnel at the end of the second long outage, when the facility at CERN was upgraded for several years to allow protons to collide with each other at much higher energy ranges when Launch 3 starts in July.
Future experiments at CERN will attempt to unravel mysteries such as dark matter and dark energy. The image above shows a string of dipole magnets inside the tunnel of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.