The cratered surface of the Moon only shows HALF of the impacts it has received in 4.5 billion years.

It may be known for its cratered surface, but researchers say the Moon actually shows only about half the amount of impact it has received.

They came to this conclusion after finding a more accurate way to measure the impact history of the lunar landscape, which involves studying rock density on and directly below the surface, or its porosity.

Around the time of the formation of the Earth and Moon 4.5 billion years ago, asteroids, comets and other space debris were flying around the Earth. solar system and crashed into the young planet and its satellite.

This left the Moon with the heavily cratered face we see today.

Scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) said that this turbulent time ended about 3.8 billion years ago, and since then the impacts have been smaller and much rarer.

But early heavy bombardments broke up the surface rock and formed a fragmented, porous crust with large gaps extending far below the surface.

Researchers are studying this porosity to learn more about the Moon’s impact history.

Discovery: MIT scientists say the moon only shows about half the number of impacts it has received. In the image above, astrophotographer Andrew McCarthy has pieced together thousands of images of the moon’s phases to show its crater in all its glory.

Around the time of the formation of the Earth and Moon 4.5 billion years ago, asteroids, comets and other space debris flew around the solar system and crashed into the young planet and its moon.  This left the Moon with the heavily cratered face we see today.

Around the time of the formation of the Earth and Moon 4.5 billion years ago, asteroids, comets and other space debris flew around the solar system and crashed into the young planet and its moon. This left the Moon with the heavily cratered face we see today.

HOW DID THE EXPERTS REACH THEIR CONCLUSIONS?

Scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are studying the Moon’s porosity to learn more about the history of its impact.

They used NASA measurements of its surface gravity to create detailed maps that show that the areas surrounding the youngest craters are the most porous, while older craters are surrounded by more compressed and denser rock.

The researchers studied 77 craters ranging in age from 4.3 billion to 3.8 billion years. They then modeled the change in porosity with the age of the crater.

Experts have suggested that older craters have experienced more impact over time and that they have compacted the surrounding rock, while younger craters have experienced much less impact, if at all.

Therefore, the underlying porosity of these younger craters would be more representative of the Moon’s initial conditions.

This allowed them to estimate the number of impacts required to move from the original porosity to the denser modern porosity of the Moon’s oldest basins.

Co-author Dr. Jason Soderblom of MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences (EAPS) said: “We know the Moon has been so bombarded that what we see on the surface is no longer a record of every lunar impact.” never was, because at some point the blows erased the previous blows.

“We are finding that the way the impacts created porosity in the Earth’s crust is not being destroyed, and this may give us a better bound on the total number of impacts the Moon has been subjected to.

“Previous estimates have shown that this number is much higher, 10 times more than what we see on the surface, and we predict that there were fewer impacts.

“This is important because it limits the total amount of material that impact objects, such as asteroids and comets, have delivered to the Moon and terrestrial bodies, and imposes limits on the formation and evolution of planets throughout the solar system.”

Scientists had previously assumed that the onslaught of massive impacts would have compressed the surface.

But the MIT team found that this was due to subsequent, smaller impacts, and earlier, larger impacts actually caused more fragmentation.

The study used NASA’s gravity measurements on the moon’s surface to create detailed maps that show that areas surrounding the youngest craters are the most porous, while older craters are surrounded by more compressed and denser rock.

Dr. Soderblom and researchers at Purdue and Auburn Universities examined 77 craters ranging in age from 4.3 to 3.8 billion years. They then modeled the change in porosity with the age of the crater.

Experts have suggested that older craters have experienced more impact over time and that they have compacted the surrounding rock, while younger craters have experienced much less impact, if at all.

Therefore, the underlying porosity of these younger craters would be more representative of the Moon’s initial conditions.

Study lead author Ya Hui Huang said: “We use the youngest pool we have on the Moon that hasn’t been hit too hard and use that as a way to start as initial conditions.

“We then use an equation to adjust the number of strokes needed to go from that initial porosity to the more compacted modern porosity of the oldest basins.”

The researchers studied the porosity of lunar rocks to learn more about the history of their impact.

The researchers studied the porosity of lunar rocks to learn more about the history of their impact.

These simulations showed a clear trend that at the beginning of the lunar bombardment 4.3 billion years ago, the crust was highly porous, about 20 percent.

In comparison, the porosity of pumice is about 60-80 percent.

Closer to 3.8 billion years ago, the Earth’s crust became less porous and has remained about 10% since then.

This shift is likely the result of small impacts compacting the fractured crust, and researchers estimate that the Moon has experienced about twice as many small impacts as can be seen on the surface today.

Dr. Soderblom added: “This sets an upper limit on the speed of impacts on the solar system.

“Now we also have a new understanding of how impacts affect the porosity of terrestrial bodies.”

Research published in the journal Geophysical natural sciences.

SCIENTISTS DISSOLVE ON HOW THE MOON FORMED, BUT MANY BELIEVE IT WAS THE RESULT OF EARTH AND ANOTHER PLANET COLLISION

Many researchers believe that the Moon formed after the Earth collided with a Mars-sized planet billions of years ago.

This is called the giant impact hypothesis.

The theory suggests that the moon consists of debris left after the collision of our planet with the body about 4.5 billion years ago.

The colliding body is sometimes called Theia, after the mythical Greek Titan, mother of Selene, goddess of the moon.

Many researchers believe that the Moon formed after the Earth collided with a Mars-sized planet billions of years ago.  This is called the giant impact hypothesis.

Many researchers believe that the Moon formed after the Earth collided with a Mars-sized planet billions of years ago. This is called the giant impact hypothesis.

But one mystery remained, unraveled by the rocks that the Apollo astronauts brought back from the Moon: Why are the Moon and Earth so similar in composition?

Over the years, several different theories have emerged to explain the similar fingerprints of the Earth and the Moon.

It is possible that the impact created a huge cloud of debris that thoroughly mixed with the Earth and then condensed to form the Moon.

Or, coincidentally, Theia could be chemically similar to the young Earth.

A third possibility is that the Moon formed from terrestrial materials and not from Theia, although that would be a very unusual type of impact.